№4 (2020)

DOI: 10.47148/1609-364X-2020-4

   Geoinformation systems

Software for GIS-processing of airborne lidar data  
B.A. NovakovskyA.V. Kudryavtsev, A.L. Entin

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The paper considers GIS software which may be utilized for airborne lidar data processing. Software list includes proprietary MicroStation with TerraScan plugin, Global Mapper, ArcGIS, ERDAS Imagine, LAStools, as well as free and open source SAGA, WhiteboxTools, and PDAL.io. Possibilities of import-export, 2D and 3D data visualization, point cloud editing and derivation of GIS datasets are examined for each software. Computational efficiency assessment is performed for the procedure of interpolation point elevation data in different software. As a result, the advantages and disadvantages of the considered programs were identified in relation to various tasks.

Geoinformation system for designing adaptive landscape farming systems on the radioactively contaminated territory of the Tula research institute of agriculture
E.O. KrechetnikovaV.V. KrechetnikovI.E. TitovV.K. Kuznetsov

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 GIS project was developed for the radioactively contaminated territory of the Tulskii NII. It was created in order to project the adaptive landscape agricultures. It was based on the information on the concentrations of 137Cs radionuclide in soil, compiled over 16 years. Electronic maps have been developed to create a GIS project and included the location of agricultural lands; crop rotation systems; distribution of specific activity values for artificial 137Cs radionuclide in agricultural lands; agrochemical indexes (the humus content, potassium content, contribution of phosphorus, the acidity), soil types, relief. The created GIS project and the corresponding data bases will be used to collect, store and analyse the results of the survey in order to project the adaptive landscape agricultures.

   Application of GIS technologies

Method of decryption and inventory of forest plantations by means of GIS AutoCad Map 
M.R. Vagizov, S.Y. Stepanov, Y.A. Petrov, A.Y. Sidorenko

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The authors’ article discusses the proposed methodology for the inventory of woody plants using the tools of geographic information systems. The tasks of the study included a tree inventory of plantations in the city, this task is of practical interest in the management and development of economic activities in an urbanized territory. To conduct sub-river decryption, the authors carried out work on creating thematic layers for each of the identified trees. The article describes a step-by-step methodology for formalizing the features of plantations within the framework of the system under consideration and the possible transition from classical taxation of woodlands to partially automated methods for decrypting plantations at the level of separately considered tree species for the benefit of garden and park farming. The article indicates the necessary characteristics for creating a database of plantings features using the Autocad Map GIS.

Features of application of geoinformation systems and technologies for solving production problems of JSC «Russian Railways»
S.V. Duhin, A.A. Bayandurova, N.A. Duhina 

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The article discusses the possibility of creating effective geoinformation technologies to improve the operation of JSC «Russian Railways». The need for them is due to the huge scale of the territories occupied by the railway infrastructure, and the specifics of work activities that are associated with the organization of the transportation process. It is proposed to follow five principles when creating a unified railway GEODATA database: the use of a single coordinate base, the uniqueness of each object and the use of geographical coordinates as the primary key, the definition of a generalized graph of the railway network using a digital path model, the use of existing geoinformation resources, continuous updating and updating of information.

 Modeling geo objects and geo-processes

Estimation of the length of the lateral sections of the presence of hydrocarbons according to the seismic location of oil and gas (SLONG)
I.S. Fayzullin, A.V. SereginA.V. Volkov, T.I. Fayzullin

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 In the method of seismic location of oil and gas (SLONG), intended for predicting the oil and gas prospects of objects based on the data of seismic exploration method CDP-2D, the length of the laterally allocated sections of the presence of hydrocarbons is determined by statistical processing of all graphs of the energy distribution by depth of micro tremors. However, in this case, the results of processing depend on the repetition factor of impulse accumulations of fluctuations used. Therefore it is proposed to use a different approach to determine the length of the lateral sections of the presence of HC based on the processing of micro tremors recorded during CDP-2D, according to the method proposed by G.V. Vedernikov, E.A. Khagoev and T.I. Chichinina. As a result of applying this technique, it was found that all oil and gas fields are accompanied by anomalies in the micro tremors field in terms of energy and spectral characteristics of vibrations. Not stopping on the possibility of solving the inverse problem, we only note that according to this provision, the presence of a deposit should lead to anomalies in the micro tremors field and, in particular, to an increase in the energy oscillation. Therefore, if the presence of a deposit is established in any way, then we should expect the appearance of a section with an increased energy oscillation, which can be used to estimate the length of the deposit laterally. The fact of the presence of a deposit can be established by the results of processing the same CDP-2D profile using SLONG technology. If a positive SLONG result is obtained, a section with an increased energy of micro tremors should appear on the corresponding section of the profile, which will lead to the solution of the problem.

Technology for constructing a 3D density model of the earth’s crust in the INTEGRO GIS
V.A. SpiridonovN.N. Pimanova, M.Ya. Finkelstein

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 The work is devoted to the construction of a three-dimensional density model of the territory, which would not contradict the information obtained by other methods (drilling, seismic, etc.). A generalized scheme for constructing such a model is given, its stages and ways of matching with the results of other methods are described. The technology described in the work is based on the tools included in the GIS INTEGRO software package (FSBI «VNIGNI»). The article is illustrated with examples of the technology application in the construction of density models for various parts of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province.

  Geoecology

Mapping patterns of distribution and modern conditions of permafrost landscapes in Yakutia 
A.A. Shestakova

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Digital thematic maps of the modern condition of permafrost landscapes of Yakutia on a scale of 1:1 500 000 have been compiled. A quantitative analysis of the patterns of their spatial distribution was carried out, the differentiation of permafrost landscapes by geocryological characteristics was made, and the areas that are most vulnerable to modern climate change and anthropogenic impacts were identified. The analysis of a series of digital thematic maps of the modern condition of permafrost landscapes in Yakutia showed that 34% of the total territory is occupied by landscapes with soil temperatures from −2 to −4 °C, the least common high-temperature permafrost landscapes (from 0 to −2 °C) – about 4% of the territory. Landscapes with active layer thickness values of about 1 m are spread over 36% of the territory, which is the highest indicator. Insignificant territories (up to 3%) are occupied by landscapes with active layer thickness of up to 3 and 3,5 m. The most widespread landscapes are those with low-ice deposits (less than 0,2) – 38,7%, and landscapes with heavy-ice deposits (more than 0,4) occupy 31%. The most dangerous process is thermokarst, which occurs in the interalassic and slightly drained types of terrain.

Landscape-ecological zoning of the Orenburg city based on geomorphometric, ecological and economic features of the territory 
S.A. Dubrovskaya, R.V. Ryakhov

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The article is a complex of detailed studies of the natural landscape structure and the ecological and functional purpose of the urbanized territory. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that it is necessary to introduce territorial planning documents (master plan) and landscape planning projects, with the allocation of specific sections of the natural-ecological framework of cities. The study was conducted with the aim of studying the natural-technical geosystem to optimize the interaction of nature transformed by human activities and the socio-economic needs of society. To achieve this goal, a typification scheme for landscape structures of urban space was developed for the first time, based on a digital terrain model and using the method of automated typological zoning of relief using its morphometric data using artificial neural networks. As a result of automated training of the neural network model and verification of the data obtained, 15 classes were obtained (taxa tracts) and established the correspondence of each type of landscape in space with an indication of geomorphometric characteristics. Based on the digitized model of the functional zoning of Orenburg and types of landscapes, for the first time, an integrated map of the landscape-ecological zoning of urban space was developed and classifications of types and types of landscape zones were presented: primary and mixed. Cartographic models of the natural-landscape component of Orenburg, which is the natural-ecological framework of the object of study – recreational zones and a hydrographic network are separately presented. The results obtained are important for maintaining the landscape functions of the urbanized area, forecasting changes, and minimizing the effects of anthropogenic impact.