№4 (2014)

   Geoinformation systems

Digital Geological Information Retrieval and Download Web Services inthe Cartographic Information Retrieval System (CIRS) of the State Bank ofDigital Geological Information (SBDGI).
Bliskavitsky A.A., Markov K.N., Bogolyubskii A.D.

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The objective of the web cartographic subsystem CIRS SBDGI is to allow state and municipal agencies, and the whole community to search metadata and spatial information from SBDGI. The interactive CIRS user’s web interface provides extended functions of searching, processing, and analysis of SBDGI data.

This article describes the CIRS facilities of the web search in realtime, the free web access to the integrated state geological information resources, the advanced interactive CIRS web interface and the SBDGI uniform integrated information space.

Geoinformation system of the assessment intensity of fire-dangerous seasons.
Glagolev V.A., Kogan R.M.

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The technique estimates tension fire seasons on the complex natural and anthropogenic factors determining burn vegetation. For its technical implementation of geographic information system architecture is proposed,consisting of blocks of data collection and data preprocessing; storage, and calculation of the indicators index tension fire seasons and visualize their changes. The developed system is investigated tensions fire seasons in 17 municipalities in the Khabarovsk Krai and the Jewish Autonomous Region meteorological data 27 weather stations and information about regional vegetation fires airbase and the Far East with the help of space and NASA sites FSI «Avialesookhrana» from 1976 till 2012. It is shown that the stress index corresponds to the density of vegetation fires and can be used to identify trends in the characteristics of the seasons to develop long-term programs to modernize fire monitoring based on the predictions of climate change and socio-economic conditions in a particular territory.

Рaleopalynological information system.
Shevelev M.A.

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The analysis of the processed palynological material showed the necessity of creation of information system, allowing automating the processing and analysis of palynological researches. The conceptual model – prototype of anew palynological information system «Miospora» is presented. Also presented the analysis of available similar software products. The conceptual model ofthe program developed by the author possesses necessary for palynologer functionality, automates the process of research on the basis described in the article the algorithm of work of palynologer.

   Application of GIS technologies

Imaginative model to present the experiences of decision-making by using geoinformation systems.
Belyakov S.L., Belyakova M.N.,Savelyeva M.N.

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In this paper are analyzed the features of the information support of decision-making by geoinformation systems in the case of imaginative representation of experience. We consider modern directions of intellectualization of geoinformation systems, which provide information support with incomplete and contradictory of information. Among them are multi-agent systems, systems with geospatial cyberinfra structure, systems ofthe intellectual visualization. The main purpose of the research is the development of model of data representation, which provides increasing of the reliability of decision-making on the basis of experience. Feature of the imaginative model of experience proposed by the authors is his description of aset of transformations. Determining in the description of decisions and the conditions of their decision are not coordinates in feature space. This is the valid conversion situations and solutions. In this approach the specificity gets case-based reasoning, which is used traditionally for solutions based on experience. It’s described the information model of the image precedents, it’s analyzed the problem of actualization of the image in the search for solutions.It’s formulated in conditions of consistency and usefulness of actualized image. It’s described the procedure of actualization. In this paper gives anexample of imaginative representation of experience to the task of parking acar. It’s discussed the features of the proposed approach to improve the reliability: the accumulation of general knowledge about the situation, the deductive method of reasoning for decisions, analysis of cartographic representation of the situation at the time of the decision.

GIS technology maps comparison and management of territory development.
Cheremisina E.N., Spivak I.L, Spivak L.F., Sokolov A.S.

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Described a GIS-technology complex that allows to compare the object mapof territory (OMT) to obtain quantitative estimates of the differences and analyze the dynamics of changes in the territory condition. OMT is a digital raster map its informative load forms a set of spatial objects relating to a given class the Earth’s surface. Comparison technique allows not only to detect meaningful changes in informative load maps, but also to assess the importance of allocated differences for management development of the territory. Main feature of this approach is that a quantitative measure of the differences calculated using special evaluation functions. In this compared not the maps themselves, but their descriptions, constructed according to certain rules.This allows to significantly reduce the amount of information being processed and simplify comparisons.

The complex provides four main objectives: to form OMT; to construct OMT descriptions; construction of evaluation functions for calculating measures of OMT difference; to compare OMT descriptions and quantitative assessment of the differences. Methods and algorithms for solving these tasks are presented in details. Proposed a two-stage scheme to measure differences. At the first stage are constructed functions to calculate the differences of local measures that take into account certain types of changes, and the second – local estimates are used to calculate the integral measure of the generalized estimation differences of maps. An example illustrating the possibility of using GIS-technology comparison maps for solving the problem of choosing the most effective management scenarios of the territory development.

Organization of automatic calculation and delivery of tropical cyclones’ trajectories into ESIMO.
Eremenko A.S., Eremenko V.S., Nedoluzhko I.V.

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The paper discusses problems of automatic calculation and delivery of information related to trajectories of tropical cyclones (TC) into a «Unified system of information on the World ocean» using open standards of geographical information system. General scheme of a system of automatic TC trajectories and atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity calculation using multiprocessor cluster is described. The structure of format of TC data and a method of its delivery on the basis of OGC standard was developed.Corresponding service and a web-interface was created.

Particularities of digital near-surface seismic data differentiation.
Romanov V.V.

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The article considers the problem of seismic gather differentiationtaking into account peculiarities of digital signals which are discrete intime and magnitude. Basic numerical differentiation techniques are discussed bythe example of near-surface seismic data.

   Database

Seismic surveys in the north-western sector of the Pacific using ocean bottom seismometers.
Tarakanov R.Z., Veselov O.V.

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Based on first stage of surveys using ocean bottom seismometers(1974-1987) P-wave velocities in the upper mantle’s oceanic block for thenorth-western Pacific area adjacent to the Kurile-Kamchatka and the Japanese trenches were rectified. Critical analysis of observational data obtained by scientists of different countries in seismological experiments using ocean bottom seismometers is made. Ocean bottom seismometers observational data obtained in the Japanese Longshot-2 experiments (oriented along the structures)are considered to be the most reliable [Duennebier, Lienezt, 1987; McDermott,Labhart, Marshall; Revenaugh, Jordan T, 1989]. P-wave velocity section constructed based on these data is characterized by anomalously high velocities within the 10-250 km depth interval. Wave channel with P-wave velocity drop of 0,2 km/sec was identified in the 60-120 km depth interval. Anomalously high velocities in the oceanic block can apparently be explained by eclogitization of the matter at these depths or phase transitions [Городницкий, 1985].Anisotropy of the velocities can also be a factor contributing to velocities’anomaly [Revenaugh J., Jordan T, 1989].

The second stage of ocean bottom seismometers’ surveys (2012) showedthat aftershocks of the 2011 catastrophic earthquake with slips predominating might suggest further subduction of the Philippine plate under the Japanese islands. Experiments in the Boussole Strait in 2000 delineated the focus of the strong earthquake of November 15, 2006.

 Modeling geo objects and geo-processes

Using neural networks in exogenous processes monitoring by remote sensing.
Varlamov A.D., Sharapov R.V.

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In paper considered the problem of using remote sensing monitoring ofthe exogenous processes. The satellite observations can used in tasks of detection of newly formed landslides, landslips and karst collapses. Practices hows that the satellite images of the same area, taken at different times, can have significant differences from each other. The reasons for these differences may include weather conditions, time of day, time of year and so on. Thus, itis necessary to perform the satellite images correction to bring them into thesame species, removing impact of changes in weather conditions, etc. In addition, it is needed to detect the clouds in the images. Clouds interfere with the analysis of images. The detection of exogenous processes manifestations can be make after these actions. For image correction and object detection can be used the neural networks. In paper are given the algorithm for image correction and the structure of a neural network. The algorithm has been tested for the detection of clouds and karst collapses. In paper the results of algorithm work are given.