The paper proposes the architecture of specialized geographic information system, which aims at modeling of mining enterprises. Modeling consists of three parts. At the stage of preprocessing used geometric modeling: thesystem builds a three-dimensional image of coal rock mass based on the exploration of data. In the second phase analyzed the stress-strain state of the coal rock mass. In the analysis uses mathematical and statistical methodswithin the subject area (geomechanics). GIS architecture implies the possibility of replacement and calibration of numerical and statistical methods. Given the complex interactions in the system, «powered support–coal rockmass» was chosen experimentally-analytical method, which consists in solving a system of differential equations ofrock mechanics finite element method. The third stage consists of two parts connected with a representation of the calculations results. The first part helps in the interpretation: interpolated missing data, and provides guidance on carrying out excavation work in the mines of the coal enterprise. The second handles the results obtained, providing the user with a visual display of information on changes in the level of the selected characteristics. There is the possibility of creating an animation with the ability to map the terrain overflown. Should also note the existence of feedback in the system – it specifies the data and makes the model more appropriate. GIS has the extensibility and scalability, which allows to take into account the specific characteristics and atypical operating conditions.
The article is devoted the problem of designing the basic elements of eco-information system for monitoring the environment in Irkutsk region (EISM) for predicting the evolution of its states. On the basis intended for the organization of parametric monitoring of various kinds of natural and industrial and commercial facilities eco-information system integrated assessment monitoring parameters «EkoSKOP-M», developed by the Center for the dual monitor environment and natural resources, performed component-wise assessment of the state of the environment in Irkutsk region.
Modeling geo objects and geo-processes
In comparison with complicated mathematic techniques geoinformation modeling of floods doesn`t need a fullset of statistic data. A practicability of using GIS arises when it`s necessary not to predict a flood but to model actual water spreading.By the example of Biysk a technique of geoinformation modeling of hazardous flood happened in Altai Krai inMay–June of 2014 and its consequences for local people is described in the article. Digital elevation model extracted by a photogrammetric method from a stereo pair of high resolution satellite imagery forms a basis of flood zones modeling.
The algorithm of three-dimensional model of tectonic break of Earth crust block creation with using geoinformational systems technologies as a tool has been shown in the present paper. Initial materials are results of aero- space image with different degree of detail decipherment. An evaluation of adequacy of obtained results was conducted. Reliability of model confirmed by reflecting in it well known geological structure.
Three-dimensional model of fractures in the region of Kuril-Kamchatka and Aleutian island arcs connection was created on basis of geological, geophysical and geomorphological data analysis. In the virtual space the seismic focal zone and fault planes of 52 fractures were simulated. Each fracture has got a unique number. The model is represented as a geographic information system of ArcGIS 10.0 combining the map of fractures on the terrain surface,three-dimensional model of fractures and layers-sections at the depths of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 70 km. In separate and attributive tables of geodata base there is information about specific features of fractures location, their belonging to a definite system, characteristic of morphological-kinetic features and ranks, azimuth and incidence angle of a fault plane, depth and activity. The information of geological, geomorphological and geophysical explanation of fractures locationis also given. The tables and layers characterizing fractures are connected and form a relational structure. It gives the possibility to form SQL-queries by MS Access or ArcGIS to obtain different data combinations.
The paper is concerned with research, modeling and analysis of results of calculation of parameters of geomagnetic field of intraterrestrial sources and characteristics of its dynamics for 2010-2015.
Application of GIS technologies
A geoinformation system «World’s Largest Mineral Deposits» with a free access through Internet (i.e. webGIS) has been produced using the data base of large and super-large mineral deposits by Vernadsky’s SGM RAS which contains 1643 records for natural accumulations of the most important non-fuel raw materials. The main component of the GIS is the web application basing on the map services presented as GIS maps of tectonic and metallogenic content. In addition, the resource includes basic geographic layers from free informational sources. Allthe services and web application were created in English and Russian versions. The paper contains a description of the sequence of procedures used in their creation and justification for the preferences made in choosing of software products at all stages of production from initial GIS projects to the final web application. The produced system allows anybody to work with the information layers placed on a parent server and use a wide spectrum of functions including navigation, search, selection, sorting, and extraction outward the server. Besides, it is possible to insert the map services into GIS projects in the remote user’s computer as specific layers.
The article deals with the use of geostatistics for the development of the Khankala geothermal waters deposit ofthe Chechen Republic. In 2013, a project for the construction of an experimental geothermal plant on the basis of themost promising XIII layer of the Khankala deposit of geothermal waters was launched. Geostatistical techniques are used for the temperature of the thermal water in the productive well prediction and structural map of XIII layer creation. Advantages and features of methods such as ordinary kriging and internal random functions kriging are considered. On an example of mapping the temperature distribution and structural map of the roof of the XIII productive layer as well as its comparison with the old map, the efficacy of modern geostatistical methods is demonstrated.