Application of GIS technologies
The paper deals with the basic concepts of network analysis in relation to electric networks, as well as the possibility of modules and geographic information tools of ArcGIS package for the calculation of three key indicators: power grid centrality of power lines, alternativeness of power supply and topological distance to the consumer. The peculiarities of electric networks as models of complex networks: hierarchy according to voltage classes, different functional types of vertices of the network (power plants and electrical substations) and the presence of specific types of connection of the taps. The study compares two models of representation of geographical networks – geometric and transport-and their corresponding modules GIS package ArcGIS – Utility Network and Network Analyst. It is proved that despite the fact that electric networks are inherently geometric, it is much more convenient to represent them in the form of a transport model. This gives you much more analysis and automation. The structure of electrical networks can be visualized using the proposed three indicators on the map, a fragment of which is given in the work. Such maps can be used to identify vulnerable areas of the network, which is important when planning activities for the development of the power system.
The article describes the main requirements for the geo-information system (GIS) of radioecological monitoring of atmospheric air, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities. The analysis of GIS and decision support systems (DSS) using GIS-technologies during radioecological monitoring, the assessment of the consequences of radioactive contamination of territories and their remediation has been carried out. The analysis of software products for developing the GIS has been presented and a list of programs, the use of which would be the most effective at the development of GIS project for the support of radioecological monitoring, has been proposed. The scheme of radioecological monitoring using geo-information technologies, as well as the structure and composition of the GIS project have been presented in the paper.
Modeling geo objects and geo-processes
The geophysics is widely used at nondestructive researches of objects of historical and cultural heritage. The ambiguity of data interpretation is caused by a complex of objective reasons: restrictions of geophysical methods and significant heterogeneity of the cultural layer of archaeological sites. Therefore the development of the algorithm of researches allowing to reduce the number of errors of the first and second kinds is relevant and, respectively, to increase the quality of nondestructive researches of objects of historical and cultural heritage. The algorithm including stages of complex geophysical measurements (magnetic and resistivity surveys), processing (segmentation) and interpretation (on the basis of a priori information on the form and sizes of expected objects of search, and also about types of the geophysical anomalies corresponding to objects) is offered. Experimental studies on the territory of the medieval Kushmanskoe III settlement revealed a previously unknown line of fortifications and allowed to restore the row layout of the settlement. During the reconstruction of the layout, the location of various constructions – ditch, the foundation of structures made of calcined and compacted clay, pits of residential and industrial buildings, hearths, etc., was determined. An estimate of the degree of preservation of the cultural layer is obtained. The results of the interpretation are confirmed by soil drills and excavations. The information obtained as a result of nondestructive research is fundamentally important from the point of view of the preservation of objects of historical and cultural heritage.
The development of the application is based on the automation and upgrading the structural-geomorfological (SGM) neotectonic stresses reconstruction method of L.A. Sim. This method is based on the application of a specific set of computer vision algorithms to the original elevation maps or satellite images of the terrain. The method consists of three stages: at the first stage, the necessary lineaments are decrypted, at the second – the search and measurement of angles between contiguous lineaments, at the third – classification by M.V. Gzovsky. Selection of lineaments can be performed both manually and automatically using the skeletonization algorithm of a binarized height map. At the next stage, the procedure of searching for specific points on a skeletonized image or a hand-marked vector mask is applied. Next, at the points of intersection of the fault line with adjacent lineaments, angles are measured. The classification stage is implemented as a chain of conditions that are checked for each value of the angles from the resulting array. Conditions are represented by the angle belonging to a given interval with a fixed average and unadjustable spread. Each type has a different set of conditions. After checking all the conditions for all found angle values, the probabilities of a fault belonging to one or another type are calculated.The region of the Leno-Olenek interfluve was chosen for testing. The testing territory refers to the northeast of the Siberian platform. The initial elevation maps were taken from ASTER GDEM v2 data.Testing should be considered successful because the most of the faults under consideration (21/25) were classified correctly. At the same time, a number of remarks have been identified for the future work.Thus, a software tool that allows to automate the method L.A. Sim and significantly speed up the work on the determination of neotectonic stresses by this method has been created and successfully tested.
The conceptual and mathematic models of the transport of a mantle substance with reduced relative to the enclosing medium density to the Earth crust are introduced. Based on them, the platform for parametric modeling of the substance accumulation in a depth chamber, formation and evolution of the mantle-crust migrant has been created as software Vladi Overpressure. The software provides to simulate forming of the depth accumulative chamber of three different shapes as well as forming and evolution of the mantle-crust migrant of three different shapes. The rate of the migrant ascent can be calculated by five equations (Newton’s, von Rittinger’s, Stokes’s, Allen-Lyaschenko’s, Spera’s) that relate the following parameters: density, strength, temperature, dynamic viscosity, yield strength of the enclosing medium, and migrant density.
Digital elevation models (DEM) are widely used for hydrological analysis – the assessment of surface runoff properties. ‘Raw’ DEMs are rarely suitable for reliable hydrological analysis, which requires DEM to be in so-called ‘hydrologilcally correct’ form. Hydrological correctness requires that all closed local depressions (pits) should be removed from DEM. There are a lot of hydrological DEM pre-processing (pit treatment) algorithms, including filling, breaching, and combined approaches, but most of them cannot preserve surface features from initial DEM. This paper presents a new algorithm for filling closed local depressions which replaces every pit with naturally-shaped surface, allowing preservation of initial surface features. Modification procedure of the proposed algorithm does not exceed depression boundaries and cannot change potentially reliable DEM fragments. Comparison of results of hydrological correction obtained by several algorithms shows that proposed feature-preserving filling procedure produces more reliable surface for further hydrological analysis, and the results are comparable to the results of breaching procedure.
A map of the landscape-morphological structure of the middle part of the Vityazevskaya bay bar is presented. The map was compiled on the basis of the interpretation of digital aerial pictures at a scale of 1:2000 for the coastal zone of the bay bar and images from the SPOT-6 satellite at a scale of 1:5000 for around lagoon lowlands. The distinctive features of this bay bar area were identified: the development of a wide strip of beach dunes in the absence of the frontal dunes behind the beach; periodic storm seawater flooding of areas of around lagoon lowlands, separated by relic accumulative forms; the presence in the rear and middle beach areas of soil moistening and thickening of vegetation in connection with the inflow of water from the around lagoon lowlands coming by channel and hollows of runoff. The identified features must be considered when developing measures for the recreational development of the bay bar territory.